what country owns the pacific ocean

The report also cited "weak governance and intrusive interventions by the State" that reduced productivity. In order to keep this list of moderate size, links are g… [100] Vanuatu is recognised as a distinct terrestrial ecoregion, which is known as the Vanuatu rain forests. Vanuatu lands minister, Ralph Regenvanu said, "This is the worst disaster to affect Vanuatu ever as far as we know. China loaned and funded the $114 million redevelopment of the wharf, which has already been constructed, with the capacity to dock naval vessels. Musical instruments consist mostly of idiophones: drums of various shape and size, slit gongs, stamping tubes, as well as rattles, among others. [32][55] In May an abortive Moderate rebellion broke out on Tanna, in the course of which one of their leaders was shot and killed. Although the oceans are technically viewed as international zones, meaning no one country has jurisdiction over it all, there are regulations in place to help keep the peace and to essentially divide responsibility for the world’s oceans to various entities or countries around the world. Of this income, agriculture grown for their own household use was valued at 683 million vatu, agriculture for sale at 561, gifts received at 38, handicrafts at 33 and fisheries (for sale) at 18. [32] Upon their release they began to press for complete independence. [66][67], In 1996 Vohor and President Jean-Marie Léyé were briefly abducted over by the Vanuatu Mobile Force over a pay dispute and later released unharmed. Vanuatu is recognised as a "flag of convenience" country. [14][24], In 1789 William Bligh and the remainder of his crew sailed through the Banks Islands on their return voyage to Timor following the 'Mutiny on the Bounty'; Bligh later returned to the islands, naming them after his benefactor Joseph Banks. The ni-Vanuatu are primarily (98.5%) of Melanesian descent, with the remainder made up of a mix of Europeans, Asians and other Pacific islanders. [166], Christianity is the predominant religion in Vanuatu, consisting of several denominations. Tensions are rising in the Pacific Ocean, with the Chinese government hitting out after the US Navy just increased its presence. According to the 2009 census, Vanuatu has a population of 243,304. [32][56][57][27] The Anglo-French forces withdrew in August, and Lini called in troops from Papua New Guinea, sparking the brief 'Coconut War' against Jimmy Stevens's Vemarana separatists. It includes the island of New Caledonia (the Grande Terre [Mainland]), where the capital, Nouméa, is located; the Loyalty Islands; the Bélep Islands; and the Île des Pins. Magistrate courts handle most routine legal matters. [32], In November 1974 the British and French met and agreed to create a Representative Assembly in the colony, based partly on universal suffrage and partly on appointed persons representing various interest groups. The region is rich in sea life, with more than 4,000 species of marine molluscs and a large diversity of marine fishes. Tuna Fishing. [154] There are substantial numbers of crop gardens – 97,888 in 2007 – many on flat land (62%), slightly hilly slope (31%), and even on steep slopes (7%); there were 33,570 households with at least one crop garden, and of these, 10,788 households sold some of these crops over a twelve-month period.[155]. With demand from the Chinese market booming, passport sales may now account for more than 30% of the country's revenue. In the centre, more traditional Melanesian cultural systems dominate. [32][52][53], A compromise was eventually brokered, a Government of National Unity formed under a new constitution, and fresh elections held in November 1979, which the VP won with a comfortable majority. If anyone has broken the laws of the host nation in this zone regarding in any of the four previously stated areas, the host nation has jurisdiction over that zone and situation. [43][44] Meanwhile the Condominium government returned, though understaffed and underfunded, it struggled to reassert its authority. Many farmers have been abandoning cultivation of food crops, and use earnings from kava cultivation to buy food. The island is unintegrated and set apart from other islands in the Pacific by a distance of 592 miles from its nearest neighbor, the Utirik Atoll, which is part of the Marshall Islands. While the UN Convention on the Law of the Seas might not be regarded as international law by some nations, it has remained the go-to body for policing of international waters, creating nautical policies, and more. The Parliament of Vanuatu is unicameral and has 52 members,[114] who are elected by popular vote every four years unless earlier dissolved by a majority vote of a three-quarters quorum or by a directive from the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. [citation needed]. [32], During the 1920s–30s, indentured workers from Vietnam (then part of French Indochina) came to work in the plantations in the New Hebrides. According to the study, agricultural exports make up about three-quarters (73%) of all exports; 80% of the population lives in rural areas where "agriculture is the main source of their livelihood"; and of these households, almost all (99%) engaged in agriculture, fisheries and forestry. Cool between April and September, the days become hotter and more humid starting in October. SYDNEY, Australia — The island of Tulagi served as a South Pacific headquarters for Britain then Japan, and during World War II, its natural deepwater harbor made it a military gem. [42] A small Ni-Vanuatu force of some 200 men (the New Hebrides Defence Force) was established to support the Americans, and thousands more were engaged in construction and maintenance work as part of the Vanuatu Labor Corps. [147] On average, each household has 5 pigs and 16 chickens, and while cattle are the "most important livestock", pigs and chickens are important for subsistence agriculture as well as playing a significant role in ceremonies and customs (especially pigs). The President may be removed by the electoral college for gross misconduct or incapacity. In 2005 the MCA announced that Vanuatu was one of the first 15 countries in the world selected to receive support — an amount of US$65 million was given for the provision and upgrading of key pieces of public infrastructure. [12][14], Over time it is thought that the Lapita either mixed with, or acted as pioneers for, migrants coming from the Bismarks and elsewhere in Melanesia, ultimately producing the darker-skinned physiognomy that is typical of modern ni-Vanuatu. As mentioned above a nation has the right to use the resources of the ocean up to 200 nautical miles, but outside of this zone is considered international waters and the innocent passage of ships hailing from other nations is guaranteed. Many international ship-management companies choose to flag their ships under the Vanuatu flag, because of the tax benefits and favourable labour laws (Vanuatu is a full member of the International Maritime Organization and applies its international conventions). [32] The Anglican Melanesian Mission also took promising young converts for further training in New Zealand and Norfolk Island. [14], As a result, in 1906 France and the United Kingdom agreed to administer the islands jointly; called the Anglo-French Condominium, it was a unique form of government, with two separate governmental, legal, judicial and financial systems that came together only in a (weak and ineffective) Joint Court. Three islands were historically colonised by Polynesians. [27][32] The underfunded Condominium government proved dysfunctional, with the duplication of administrations making effective governance difficult and time-consuming. Vanuatu's population (estimated in 2008 as growing 2.4% annually)[102] is placing increasing pressure on land and resources for agriculture, grazing, hunting, and fishing. Most island families grow food in their gardens, and food shortages are rare. The Pacific Ocean is located between Americas to the East of … La Niña in the tropical Pacific Ocean has influenced this year’s tropical cyclone outlook. Depending on the context, Pacific Islands may refer to countries and islands with common Austronesian origins, islands once or currently colonized, or Oceania. It is part of the division of the Pacific islands that is known as Micronesia. [14][32] At first they faced hostility, most notably with the killings of John Williams and James Harris of the London Missionary Society on Erromango in 1839. Geography Quiz / pacific ocean countries Random Geography or Country Quiz Can you name the pacific ocean countries? [32] In an effort to curb the worst of the abuses, and with the support of the missionaries, the Condominium's authority was extended via the Anglo-French Protocol of 1914, although this was not formally ratified until 1922. [138] The tropical climate enables growing of a wide range of fruits and vegetables and spices, including banana, garlic, cabbage, peanuts, pineapples, sugarcane, taro, yams, watermelons, leaf spices, carrots, radishes, eggplants, vanilla (both green and cured), pepper, cucumber and many others. [126] In addition to the two command stations there were four secondary police stations and eight police posts. Destination Solomon Islands, a virtual guide to this Melanesian islands state in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Papua New Guinea, formerly known as the British Solomon Islands. The fourteen of Vanuatu's islands that have surface areas of more than 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi) are, from largest to smallest: Espiritu Santo, Malakula, Efate, Erromango, Ambrym, Tanna, Pentecost, Epi, Ambae or Aoba, Gaua, Vanua Lava, Maewo, Malo and Aneityum or Anatom. In 1513 Vasco Nuñez de Balboa's (1475–1519) expedition left the Caribbean side of the Isthmus of Panama and crossed westward to the Pacific Ocean side, becoming the first Europeans to see the Great South Sea. [151], The largest expenditure by households was food (300 million vatu), followed by household appliances and other necessities (79 million vatu), transportation (59), education and services (56), housing (50), alcohol and tobacco (39), clothing and footwear (17). When there is more … [41], The Second World War brought immense change to the archipelago. [32] Whilst this resulted in some improvements, labour abuses continued and Ni-Vanuatu were barred from acquiring the citizenship of either power, being officially stateless. There are few prominent ni-Vanuatu authors. Direct aid from the UK to Vanuatu ceased in 2005 following the decision by the UK to no longer focus on the Pacific. [34] When international cotton prices collapsed after the ending of the American Civil War, they switched to coffee, cocoa, bananas, and, most successfully, coconuts. [16][17], The immediate origins of the Lapita lay to the northwest, in the Solomon Islands and the Bismark Archipelago of Papua New Guinea,[12] though DNA studies of a 3,000 year old skeleton found near Port Vila in 2016 indicates that some may have arrived directly from the Philippines and/or Taiwan, pausing only briefly en route. For instance, coastal states have jurisdiction over the 12 nautical miles off their coastlines, and 200 nautical miles are reserved for specific states to utilize the oceanic materials, living and nonliving, in their zone. The Timor, Tasman and Coral Seas also lie on the outside of the country. The Cook Islands (Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) are a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand.It comprises 15 islands whose total land area is 240 square kilometres (93 sq mi). They pollinate and seed disperse a wide variety of native trees. The idea of ownership over the world’s oceans has come into contention for many hundreds of years; many nations’ control of parts of the high seas often brought them great success in building their empires, improving technology and facilitating trade throughout the world. The ant species of some of the islands of Vanuatu were catalogued by E. O. Besides national authorities and figures, Vanuatu also has high-placed people at the village level. List of the largest Pacific islands Islands of the Pacific Ocean proper, with an area larger than 10,000 km 2. [92][93], Vanuatu was one of the last places on Earth to have avoided a coronavirus outbreak, recording its first case of COVID-19 in November 2020.[94]. [32] The Convention of 16 October 1887 established a joint naval commission for the sole purpose of protecting French and British citizens, with no claim to jurisdiction over internal native affairs. You can't do better than a point in the Pacific Ocean popularly known as 'Point Nemo,' named after the famous submarine sailor from Jules Verne's Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea.. Gavin Fernando gavindfernando news.com.au June 17, 2020 7:19am In particular, production of copra and kava create substantial revenue. International pressure, mainly from Australia, influenced the Vanuatu government to begin adhering to international norms to improve transparency. [32] In 1971 Father Walter Lini established another party - the New Hebrides Cultural Association, later renamed the New Hebrides National Party (NHNP) - also focused on achieving independent and opposition to land expropriation. Most food is cooked using hot stones or through boiling and steaming; very little food is fried. Since a private monopoly generates power, "electricity costs are among the highest in the Pacific" among developing countries. One controversy over the EEZs has been to determine what constitutes enough of an island to have its own EEZ. The Presbyterian Church in Vanuatu, adhered to by about one-third of the population, is the largest of them[167] and makes Vanuatu the most Presbyterian country in the world. [citation needed] Also on Tanna is the Prince Philip Movement, which reveres the United Kingdom's Prince Philip. Several ancient burial sites exist, most notable Teouma on Éfaté, which contains a large cemetery site containing 94 individuals. [173] The rate of primary school enrolment rose from 74.5% in 1989 to 78.2% in 1999 and then to 93.0% in 2004 but then fell to 85.4% in 2007. In 1982 the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas was created after the third conference regarding the implementation of international law onto the oceans. [32] A mini-building boom took off in Port Vila and, following the building of a deep-sea wharf, cruise ship tourism grew rapidly, with annual arrivals reaching 40,000 by 1977. [12], Over time, the Lapita culture lost much of its early unity; as such, it became increasingly fragmented. While well-vegetated, most islands show signs of deforestation. [27][12][24] Cook managed to maintain generally cordial relations with the Ni-Vanuatu by gifting them presents and refraining from violence. The wettest and hottest months are December through April, which also constitutes the cyclone season. The types of specific oceanic ownership (of sorts) fall into the following categories as defined by the United Nations: jurisdictional provisions, territorial sea, contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone or EEZ, and the high seas or international water. Two years later, Australia's Celebrity Survivor was filmed at the same location used by the US version. One estimate in 2007 for the total value of cattle heads sold was 135 million vatu; cattle were first introduced into the area from Australia by British planter James Paddon. [96] Rainfall averages about 2,360 millimetres (93 in) per year but can be as high as 4,000 millimetres (160 in) in the northern islands. [99] The shoreline is mostly rocky with fringing reefs and no continental shelf, dropping rapidly into the ocean depths.[96]. The official languages are Bislama, English and French. [142] A further significant attraction to scuba divers is the wreck of the US ocean liner and converted troop carrier SS President Coolidge on Espiritu Santo island. [122], Vanuatu retains strong economic and cultural ties to Australia, the European Union (in particular France), the UK and New Zealand. [14][24] Continuing further south, Queirós arrived at the largest island, naming it La Austrialia del Espíritu Santo or "The Southern Land of the Holy Spirit", believing he had arrived in Terra Australis (Australia). In 2006 the New Economics Foundation and Friends of the Earth environmentalist group published the Happy Planet Index, which analysed data on levels of reported happiness, life expectancy and Ecological Footprint, and they estimated Vanuatu to be the most ecologically efficient country in the world in achieving high well-being. [citation needed] They are headed by a chairman elected from among the members of the local parliaments and assisted by a secretary appointed by the Public Service Commission. [12] Also on Éfaté, and the adjacent islands of Lelepa and Eretoka, are sites associated with the 16th-17th century chief Roy Mata (possibly a title held by different men over several generations), who is said to have united local clans and instituted an era of peace. They are found in the northern part of the western Oceanic sub-region of Micronesia, and are politically divided into two jurisdictions of the United States: the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and, at the southern end of the chain, the territory of Guam. [96], Vanuatu has a long rainy season, with significant rainfall almost every month. [32] The parties aligned on linguistic and religious lines: the NHNP was seen as the party of Anglophone Protestants, and were backed by the British who wished to exit the colony altogether, whereas the MANH, UCNH, Nagriamel and others (collectively known as the 'Moderates') represented Catholic Francophone interests, and a more gradual path to independence. [145] Several file-sharing groups, such as the providers of the KaZaA network of Sharman Networks and the developers of WinMX, have chosen to incorporate in Vanuatu to avoid regulation and legal challenges. The nation in question can regulate use of this space for transportation, resources, use, and determine whether or not the practice of innocent passage is beneficial or detrimental to their own security. The powers of the President of Vanuatu, who is elected for a five-year term by a two-thirds vote of an electoral college, are primarily ceremonial. One report from the Manila-based Asian Development Bank about Vanuatu's economy gave mixed reviews. [14][24] The settlement was abandoned after a month, with Queirós continuing his search for the southern continent. About 20,000 ni-Vanuatu live and work in New Zealand and Australia. [21], This linguistic hyperdiversity resulted from a number of factors: continuing waves of migration, the existence of numerous decentralised and generally self-sufficient communities, hostilities between people groups, with none able to dominate any of the others, and the difficult geography of Vanuatu that impeded inter- and intra-island travel and communication. In some common uses, the term "Pacific Islands" refers to the islands of the Pacific Ocean once colonized by the British, French, Spaniards, Portuguese, Dutch, United States and Japanese, such as the Pitcairn Islands, Taiwan, and Borneo. Many died out, but the John Frum cult on Tanna is still large, and has adherents in the parliament. Vanuatu became the 185th member of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in December 2011. The remoteness of many of the Pacific Island countries has provided some initial protection from the global COVID-19 pandemic. [113] The electoral college consists of members of Parliament and the presidents of Regional Councils. The Country & Geographic Location. Because of this, and the poor conditions and abuse often faced by workers, as well the introduction of common diseases to which native Ni-Vanuatu had no immunity, the population of Vanuatu declined severely, with the current population being greatly reduced compared to pre-contact times. [62] Financial scandals dogged both Korman and Vohor, with the latter implicated in a scheme to sell Vanuatuan passports to foreigners. [140], In 2018, Vanuatu banned all use of plastic bags and plastic straws, with more plastic items scheduled to be banned in 2020.[141]. The atoll of Wake Island is located in the central Pacific Ocean, approximately 4,000 kilometers (2,500 miles) to the west-southwest of Hawaii and 2,400 kilometers (1,500 miles) to the northwest of Guam. 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Territorial_waters, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_privatization, http://www.uni-muenster.de/PeaCon/global-texte/whoowns/WhoOwnstheWorldsOceans.htm, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Territorial_waters. [171] Villagers of the Yaohnanen tribe believed in an ancient story about the pale-skinned son of a mountain spirit venturing across the seas to look for a powerful woman to marry. Although manganese mining halted in 1978, there was an agreement in 2006 to export manganese already mined but not yet exported. Kiribati is one of the most remote and geographically-dispersed countries in the world, consisting of 33 coral atolls spread over 3.5 million square kilometers of ocean; an area larger than India. The salinity of ocean water is variable and depends on three factors: winds, precipitation, and evaporation. Wilson.[106]. [156], Vanuatu was ranked the 173rd safest investment destination in the world in the March 2011 Euromoney Country Risk rankings. [78][79] In 2007 violent clashes broke out in Port Vila between migrants from Tanna and Ambrym, in which two people died. The ninth season of the reality TV series Survivor was filmed on Vanuatu, entitled Survivor: Vanuatu—Islands of Fire. Vanuatu was first inhabited by Melanesian people. [32] The boom encouraged increasing urbanisation and the populations of Port Vila and Luganville grew rapidly. [32][54], Tensions continued throughout 1980. [72][73], Edward Natapei of the VP became Prime Minister in 2001 and went on to win the 2002 Vanuatuan general election. [95][96] Two of these islands (Matthew and Hunter) are also claimed and controlled by France as part of the French collectivity of New Caledonia. The precise reasons for this are unclear. The cuisine of Vanuatu (aelan kakae) incorporates fish, root vegetables such as taro and yams, fruits, and vegetables. [32] By 1906 French settlers (at 401) outnumbered the British (228) almost two to one. However the Chief Justice then overturned Kilman's victory, with Natapei returning to power for 10 days, at which point the Parliament voted in Kilman once more. [32] Education, healthcare and other such services were left in the hands of the missionaries. Vanuatu is widely recognised as one of the premier vacation destinations for scuba divers wishing to explore coral reefs of the South Pacific region. In northern Vanuatu, feasts are graded through the nimangki-system. In a more modern sense the governance of the oceans is a matter of practicality as well as power- nations have to coordinate with each other to prevent mishaps, track ships and airplanes over oceans, and respect the international status of the world’s oceans while also minding the trade, fishing rights, and other factors. Given this information, the lowest salinity is found in the extreme northern areas of the ocean (3.2 percent) and the highest occurs in the southeast, where the water reaches up to 3.7 percent. Government and society in Vanuatu tend to divide along linguistic French and English lines. Francophone politicians like those of the Union of Moderate Parties tend to be conservative and support neo-liberal policies, as well as closer relations with France and the West. [162], The national language of the Republic of Vanuatu is Bislama. [32], From 1839 onwards missionaries, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, arrived on the islands. 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